Looking for US participants with classic CAH for Adventure Gene Therapy Trial in Adult CAH. Travel expenses will be reimbursed. Take part in pre-screening stud Definitions and Prevalence. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) encompasses a family of autosomal recessive disorders characterized by mild to acutely impaired cortisol synthesis due to a deficiency in one of the five adrenal steroidogenic enzymes required for cortisol production (1, 2).Conventionally, CAH is divided into (a) classical (CCAH), presenting with salt-wasting or the simple. Non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCCAH) is considered to be a common monogenic inherited disease, with an incidence range from 1:500 to 1:100 births worldwide. However, despite the high incidence, there is a low genotype-phenotype correlation, which explains why NCCAH diagnosis is usual Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a family of autosomal recessive disorders. 21-Hydroxylase deficiency, in which there are mutations in CYP21A2 (the gene encoding the adrenal 21-hydroxylase enzyme), is the most common form (90%) of CAH. In classic CAH there is impaired cortisol production with In some cases, people affected by non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (NCAH) may not require any treatment. Many are asymptomatic throughout their lives, although symptoms may develop during puberty, after puberty, or post partum
Non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCCAH) is considered to be a common monogenic inherited disease, with an incidence range from 1:500 to 1:100 births worldwide. However, despite the high incidence, there is a low genotype-phenotype correlation, which explains why NCCAH diagnosis is usually delayed or even never carried out, since many patients remain asymptomatic or are. The Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Research, Education, and Support (CARES) Foundation also provides information about classic CAH, including considering surgical treatment and how to find a knowledgeable surgeon People who have nonclassic CAH may not require treatment or may need only small doses of corticosteroids. Medications for CAH are taken on a daily basis. During periods of illness or significant stress, such as surgery, additional medications or higher doses may be needed COMMENTARY. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia—a continuum of disorders Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a generic term for a family of disorders due to deficiency of one of several enzymes required for the adrenal biosynthesis of cortisol from cholesterol. All have in common the classic endocrine negative-feedback response that results in.
INTRODUCTION. Defective conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone to 11-deoxycortisol accounts for more than 90 percent of cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) .This conversion is mediated by 21-hydroxylase and is defective due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene.. The diagnosis and treatment of nonclassic CAH (NCCAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency are reviewed here Treating non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia Treatment of NCCAH usually depends on the severity of the symptoms. It is a genetic condition, so putting symptoms into remission is, sadly, more difficult than with PCOS. Medical treatment requires working closely with a doctor Treatment for congenital adrenal hyperplasia depends on the type of CAH you have and how severe your symptoms are. There is no cure for CAH, but many people find symptom relief with medications. Doctors prescribe several types of medications, including salt supplements and steroids, to people living with classic CAH
NCAH, which stands for non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a fairly common genetic disorder sharing many symptoms with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). It has fairly high prevalence, with statistics showing between 0.6%-9% of women with androgen excess have NCAH, with even higher prevalence in Mediterranean, Middle-Eastern. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a metabolic disorder related to enzymatic defects in the biosynthesis of cortical steroids. Typically the defects are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, and within a particular family all inherit the same enzyme deficiency (1). Two principal effects result from the enzyme deficiency: deficient cortisol. Classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (classic 21-OHD CAH) affects the adrenal glands which are responsible for producing specific hormones.There are two types of classic 21-OHD CAH, the salt-wasting form and the simple-virilizing form. Symptoms include abnormal development of the external sex organs in females (ambiguous genitalia), early puberty, and short. Non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of one of the enzymes involved in adrenal steroid synthesis. Deficiency of the 21-hydroxylase is by far most common. NCAH typically has 20-70% residual 21-hydroxylase enzyme activity (1) and therefore result
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a family of autosomal recessive disorders. 21-hydroxylase deficiency, in which there are mutations in CYP21A2 (the gene encoding the adrenal 21-hydroxylase enzyme), is the most common form (90%) of CAH. In classic CAH there is impaired cortisol production with diagnostic increased levels of 17-OH progesterone Non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) is a relatively common disorder regardless of ethnicity, but most cases are never diagnosed, especially in males. A baseline 17-hydroxyprogesterone measurement may be used for screening, but 17-hydroxyprogesterone measurement after ACTH stimulation is the gold standard
. Therapies such as metformin, thiazolidinediones and lifestyle alterations improve IR and also ameliorate the biochemical and clinical abnormalities of NCAH, much as they do in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). More recently, bariatric surgery, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP), has also been. Non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NC-CAH) represents mild form of CAH with the prevalence of 0. 6 to 9% in women with androgen excess. Clinical and hormonal findings in females with NC-CAH are overlapping with other hyperandrogenic entities such as polycystic ovary syndrome hence causing difficulties in diagnostic approach
Adrenal crisis: It is a life-threatening condition that can occur in babies, children or adults with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia. An adrenal crisis can result in a seriously low blood level of sodium leading to diarrhea , vomiting, dehydration , low blood sugar levels and shock Non-Classic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia - the PCOS Mimicker The story is all too common in general practice. Teen and adult women complain of irregular periods, mustaches, and bacne, oh my Dörr HG. Growth in patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Horm Res 2007; 68 Suppl 5:93. Hoepffner W, Kaufhold A, Willgerodt H, Keller E. Patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency can achieve their target height: the Leipzig experience. Horm Res 2008; 70:42 Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a hormone deficiency disorder. The main treatment is hormone replacement with cortisol. This hormone is called hydrocortisone, but it is also available under various trade names, such as Cortef. This medication is usually given by mouth 3 times each day
Non-classic or late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is one of the most common autosomal recessive disorders. Reported prevalence is approximately 1 in 1000. Affected individuals typically present due to signs and symptoms of androgen excess. The purpose of this review is to provide current information regarding the pathophysiology, molecular. This is a Phase 2 multicenter, single-blind, multiple dose study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of orally administered ATR-101 in subjects with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Treatment duration will range from a minimum of approximately 2 months to 6 months per subject. A subject may receive a minimum of one dose level or up. Michael, 9 months The long trips are worth it because CHOP's Adrenal and Puberty Center provides expert care for their children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), a rare disorder of the adrenal glands.Both Charlotte, 2, and Michael, 9 months, have CAH, which requires daily medications and quarterly check-ups to ward off potential health and growth problems Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is the most frequent cause of gender ambiguity at birth, because girls are virilised during foetal life . Non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia is due to mild mutations that do not result in cortisol or aldosterone deficiency, but hyperandrogenism in adult women. This article concerns the classical form
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive disorders related to enzyme deficiencies in the adrenal steroidogenesis pathway leading to impaired corticosteroid biosynthesis. Depending on the extension of enzyme defect, there may be variable severities of CAH - classic and non-classic Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a group of autosomal recessive disorders encompassing enzyme deficiencies in the adrenal steroidogenesis pathway that lead to impaired cortisol biosynthesis. Depending on the type and severity of steroid block, patients can have various alterations in glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, and sex steroid production that require hormone replacement therapy Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) is an inherited (genetic) disorder that causes the adrenal glands to make too much or too little of important hormones that are critical for life. CAH is an autosomal recessive trait, meaning that a child can get the disease only if both parents carry a mutation for it Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of hereditary disorders that affect the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands produce the hormones cortisol and aldosterone
Late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LOCAH), also known as nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCCAH or NCAH), is a milder form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), a group of autosomal recessive disorders characterized by impaired cortisol synthesis that leads to variable degrees of postnatal androgen excess.. The causes of LOCAH are the same as of classic CAH, and in the. # SSIEM and Springer 2007 Summary Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a group of autosomal recessive disorders resulting from the defi- ciency of one of the five enzymes required for the synthesis of cortisol in the adrenal cortex. The most frequent is steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency, account- ing for more than 90% of cases. Much has been learned about the genetics of the various clinical. . There are 304 autosomal recessive disorders that have been identif ied, so me of the other common ones being Cystic Fibrosis and Tay-Sachs. This is a Wikipedia link to the identified autosomal recessive disorders Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is the most frequently encountered genetic steroid disorder affecting fertility. Steroid hormones play a crucial role in sexual development and reproductive function; patients with either 21- hydroxylase or 11β-hydroxylase deficiency thus face immense challenges to their fertility. Given the relevance of CAH in reproductive medicine as well as the.
Sactosalpinx means a collection of fluid (serum, blood or pus) in the fallopian tube. CAH (Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia) is a typical 46XX DSD (Disorder of Sex Development) due to a steroidogenic enzymatic defect. Both conditions are rare and can lead to reduced fertility rate. We describe two post-menarche virgin girls with CAH who were hospitalized for acute abdomen due to laparoscopically. The term congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) encompasses a group of autosomal recessive disorders, each of which involves a deficiency of an enzyme involved in the synthesis of cortisol, [1, 2] aldosterone, or both. Deficiency of 21-hydroxylase, resulting from mutations or deletions of CYP21A, is the most common form of CAH, accounting for more than 90% of cases. [ Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a family of inherited enzyme deficiencies that impair normal corticosteroid synthesis by the adrenal cortex. The most common enzyme deficiency is 21-hydroxylase deficiency, which accounts for over 90% of cases - Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, also called CAH, is a genetic disorder in which the two adrenal glands (located at the top of the kidney) do not function properly because of mutations in the gene for encoding adrenal steroid 21-hydroxylase, whic.. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, or CAH for its acronym in English, It can be of two types: classical or non-classical. The latter is also known as late-onset CAH. The symptoms are different depending on the type of which it is. Let's see. Classic CAH. Classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia accounts for 95% of all cases of this pathology. It.
Non-Classic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia. Nonclassic CAH is sometimes called late-onset CAH. It is a milder form of the disorder that usually is diagnosed in late childhood or early adolescence.Sometimes, people have nonclassic CAH and never know it 21-hydroxylase deficiency is an inherited disorder that affects the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidneys and produce a variety of hormones that regulate many essential functions in the body. In people with 21-hydroxylase deficiency, the adrenal glands produce excess androgens, which are male sex hormones
Conclusions:In adults with classic CAH and women with nonclassic CAH, there was a weak association between genotype and treatment, but health outcomes were not associated with genotype. The underrepresentation of males with nonclassic CAH may reflect that milder genotypes result in a milder condition that is neither diagnosed nor followed up in adulthood. Overall, our results suggest that the. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a genetic disorder, in which the adrenal glands are affected.Normally, a person has a pair of adrenal glands, placed over each kidney, which are responsible for producing certain important hormones like cortisol, aldosterone and testosterone.In this condition, the adrenal glands and their hormone production is affected leading to health problems In classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia a complication called adrenal crisis can occur, which means that the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol. This condition must be attended to immediately. It is necessary to clarify that it usually occurs in children and it does not happen in adults with the non-classic subtype
Crinecerfont is an investigational, oral, non-steroidal corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 (CRF1) receptor antagonist under evaluation for the treatment of classic congenital adrenal. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive disorders characterized by impaired cortisol synthesis. It results from the deficiency of one of the five enzymes required for the synthesis of cortisol in the adrenal cortex. Most of these disorders involve excessive or deficient production of hormones such as glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, or sex steroids, and can. imbalances occur and congenital adrenal hyperplasia manifests with a range of clinical and biochemical phenotypes, with or without alterations in glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, and sex steroid production. Both severe (classic) and mild (non-classic) forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia have been described It depends: If you are referring to non classic 21 hydroxylase deficiency in a woman, it will depend on the treatment.Both treatment with adrenal suppression with steroids and androgen blockade will result in decreased testosterone effect. Clinical effects generally take 3-6 month to see. It can take longer to have the full effect, particularly with hair Among the most common causes of female infertility, anovulation, menstrual irregularity, hirsutism, acne, and alopecia are congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). These two conditions resemble one another quite a bit, especially the non-classic forms of CAH (NCAH)
Classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia is generally recognized at birth or in early childhood because of ambiguous genitalia, salt wasting, or early virilization. Non-classic adrenal hyperplasia is generally recognized at or after puberty because of oligomenorrhea or virilizing signs in females It has been awful!It really took a toll on my self esteem growing up and put me through a lot of unnecessary heartbreak. For years and years I knew something was wrong with me I hit puberty very early and had to begin shaving my body hair at the a.. Classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia which is a more severe form of the disease. It is usually detected in infancy or early childhood. Non classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia which is a milder form of the disease. It is usually detected in late childhood or early adulthood I saw a segment on TLC (Mystery Diagnosis, The Bearded Lady) that described the differences between non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia and PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome). The two look very much alike on the surface because they both cause high testosterone: facial hair, weight gain, acne, body odor, insulin resistence, dark skin.
CAH is associated with short stature in adults even when optimal adrenal hormonal control is maintained throughout childhood and puberty. It has been shown that growth hormone therapy alone or in combination with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue is effective in improving growth rate, height deficit, and final height in children. Lin-Su K, Vogiatzi MG, Marshall I, et al. Treatment with. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) has an incidence of 1:14 000 to 1:18 000 worldwide. It is caused by autosomal recessive gene mutations, encoding enzymes in the adrenal steroidogenesis pathway. The majority, CYP21A1 mutations, result in 21-hydroxylase deficiency, with: inability to synthesise cortisol and aldosterone; diversion of increased steroid precursors, including 17. The diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia depends on the demonstration of inadequate production of cortisol, aldosterone, or both in the presence of accumulation of excess concentrations of precursor hormones.  For example, the distinguishing characteristic of 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a high serum concentration of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (usually >1000 ng/dL) and urinary. Tildacerfont is a CRF 1 receptor antagonist designed to potentially offer markedly improved disease control and reduced steroid burden in patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and other diseases characterized by elevated levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Tildacerfont binds to CRF 1 receptors on the pituitary gland, inhibiting excessive production of ACTH, and. General Discussion. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of rare inherited autosomal recessive disorders characterized by a deficiency of one of the enzymes needed to make specific hormones. CAH effects the adrenal glands located at the top of each kidney. Normally, the adrenal glands are responsible for producing three different.
Non classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia was diagnosed at age 8 years in the setting of precocious puberty. He never had salt wasting. Initial treatment consisted of hydrocortisone, 10 mg 3 times daily, and this regimen was continued for 13 years. His regimen was transitioned to dexamethasone Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a family of hereditary disorders characterized by the inability to synthesize cortisol, the stress response hormone, from cholesterol in the adrenal cortex (Pic. 1). 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most common cause of CAH and results in excess androgen (male sex hormones) production (Pic. 2)
Treatment Is there special treatment for girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia? There is an option for girls with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia to have reconstructive surgery, if they have ambiguous genitalia. Some parents request surgery in infancy, and other parents wait until their daughters are old enough to chose on their own. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia An overview In the 20% of children with less severe CAH, non salt-losing CAH, the salt balance is normal. In stressful situations, however, some people with non-salt losing CAH may become salt losers and need extra treatment. Girls born with non salt-losing CAH are usually healthy, but are often born with an. Classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia is more severe than the nonclassic form. It can be life threatening in newborns if it is not diagnosed. Classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be caused by either 21-hydroxylase or 11-hydroxylase deficiency. Classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia occurs in about one of every 15,000 births worldwide 10) Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, also called CAH, is a group of genetic disorders in which the two adrenal glands do not work properly. CAH can be severe (classic) and diagnosed in the newborn, but it can also be mild (nonclassic) and not show up until later childhood, adolescence or adulthood Treatment of classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia 4.1 In growing individuals with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia, we recommend maintenance therapy with hydrocortisone. (1| s) 4.2 In growing individuals wi th congenital adrenal hy-perplasia, we recommend against the use of oral hydrocortisone suspension and against the chroni
Carmina E, Dewailly D, Escobar-Morreale HF, et al. Non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency revisited: an update with a special focus on adolescent and adult women. Hum Reprod Update 2017; 23(5): 580-99 Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) is a defect in the adrenal gland and caused by a deficiency in 21 hydroxylase enzyme. There are two forms of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) : Classical CAH ; Non-classical CAH ; Both forms of CAH are passed down in a family from the parents to the child Non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency revisited: An update with a special focus on adolescent and adult women Enrico Carmina, Didier Dewailly, Héctor F. Escobar-Morreale, Fahrettin Kelestimur, Carlos Moran, Sharon Oberfield, Selma F. Witchel, Ricardo Azzi If non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia is confirmed, treatment is usually aimed at managing symptoms. Similar to PCOS, combined oral contraceptives can be used to lessen hirsutism and induce regular menses in females who do not desire pregnancy, and if it's not effective, then an anti-androgen medication like spironolactone can be. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disease emerging from mutations of genes for enzymes that lead to the biochemical steps of production of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, or sex steroids from cholesterol by the adrenal glands. Most of these diseases involve the excessive or deficient production of sex steroids.
Targeting CRF1 for the treatment of Classic CAH. Classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a rare genetic disorder affecting 20,000-30,000 people in the United States. The condition results in an enzyme deficiency altering the production of adrenal steroids - Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia 21-Hydroxylase , Which is the most frequent. In turn, it can be divided clinically into 3 phenotypes: loss of salt, simple virilizing, and non-classical. (Wilson, 2015). - Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia 11-beta-hydroxylase - Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenas Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia. Classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a genetic disorder that results in an enzyme deficiency that alters the production of adrenal steroids. Because of this deficiency, the adrenal glands have little to no cortisol biosynthesis, resulting in a potentially life-threatening condition New MI 2001 Prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The United 29. Merke DP, Cutler GB 2001 New ideas for medical treatment of congenital States Experience. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 30:1-13 adrenal hyperplasia Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Congenital adrenal hyperplasias (CAH) are a group of heritable disorders associated with an inability or deficiency in the ability to produce cortisol. In affected individuals, the disease begins early in gestation and leads to disease that is manifest at birth
A 31-yr-old woman presenting with a history of hirsutism, amenorrhea, and infertility was previously assumed to have polycystic ovary syndrome. A new gynecological-endocrine evaluation demonstrated elevated testosterone/SHBG ratio, serum 17-hydrox-yprogesterone (17-OHP), and urinary pregnantriol. She was diagnosed with non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In spite of treatment with. There are two forms of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) that we are going to discuss: Classic CAH and Nonclassic CAH. Classic CAH Our children with classic CAH will have a reduced level of cortisol that can affect their body's sodium levels, and in turn affect the blood pressure ( secondary to dehydration ), blood sugar, and the child's. The global Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Market Revenue is expected to grow at a CAGR of ~ 7.1 % during the forecast period 2017-2023. Segmentation. The global congenital adrenal hyperplasia market is segmented on the basis of types, diagnosis & treatment and end users Recommendations for treatment of nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCCAH): An update. Steroids, 2012. Christine Trap Classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia is the most prevalent form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, which is responsible for roughly 95% of cases. Classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia is of two types: simple virilizing and salt wasting
Neurocrine Biosciences, Inc. announced that it will present additional positive data from its Phase II CAHlibrate study of crinecerfont, an investigational, oral, non-steroidal corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 receptor antagonist for the potential treatment of classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, at ENDO. Classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) requires lifetime steroid replacement and supraphysiologic glucocorticoid dose is often required for adequate adrenal androgen suppression. Patients often suffer from long-term co-morbidities and female infertility is common. We report the use of laparoscopic bilateral adrenalectomy as a treatment for a 21 year old female with classic simple. hydroxylase deﬁciency (21-OHD) (MIM# 201910) is the most common cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), a family of autosomal recessive disorders involving impaired synthesis of cortisol from cholesterol by the adrenal cortex. The estimated prevalence of classic CAH is 1:10,000 and annual incidence ranges from 1:5,000 to 1:15,000 Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is an inherited condition caused by mutations in genes that code for enzymes involved in making steroid hormones in the adrenal glands. The most common enzyme defect, 21-hydroxylase deficiency, leads to excess amounts of male hormones being produced by the adrenal glands ^ a b c Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Diagnosis and Emergency Treatment. ^ Philadelphia, The Children's Hospital of (19 November 2019). Classic congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Diagnosed in the Newborn Period. www.chop.edu. Retrieved 5 September 2020 Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) ranks among the most common inherited metabolic disorders, with the classic form (i.e., 21-hydroxylase deficiency) affecting about one in 15,000 newborns. It is characterized by a complex imbalance of steroid hormones, with reduced cortisol and aldosterone synthesis and excessive adrenal androgen production